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There are various theoretical and philosophical approaches to understanding the relation between power and powerlessness; between difference and dichotomies-of-difference and between social justice and identity politics in formally structured learning communities.  The object of theoretical and philosophical approaches to difference and dichotomies-of-difference are the poor, disadvantaged, disinherited and dispossessed persons whose experiences of life are colored by difference.

Scientist E.O. Wilson On Why The Humanities Matter

The post modernist throws an imaginary rope over the cliff and tells the dispossessed to think of their reality differently so that they can see the rope and pull themselves up.  The realist throws a real rope over the side of the cliff and tells the disinherited to rely on their sense perception and individual human natures to make the most of a rope that is real but too short.  The historical materialist throws a rope that is real enough and long enough over the side of the cliff but is off to help some other poor and disadvantaged person before anyone can take hold.  Regardless of the theoretical and philosophical approach, the closest that most discourses of difference and dichotomies-of-difference get to actually doing anything is ‘speech acts’.

The Case Against Reality

A professor of cognitive science argues that the world is nothing like the one we experience through our senses.

Why Schools Need More Teachers of Color—for White Students


Nonwhite educators can offer new and valuable perspectives for children of all backgrounds.

Literature Is Dead (According to Straight, White Guys, At Least)

straight white guys banner

Why to Teach Dead White Authors, Even During Black History Month

There’s still value to teaching the classics to African American students.



Where Are the Teachers of Color?


Under construction …..more coming sooner or later ;o)!

Curriculum Vitae

Tom L. States PhD Candidate

Fields of Interest: Political Theory, International Relations, Marxist Political Economy

Research Topic: eRacism - Conflicts of Difference

Education History: Williams College, BA Political Science; New York University, MA Politics; York University PhD Candidate

Languages: English, German

Hometown: Greenwood, Mississippi

Words of Wisdom: “IT” is what you are when you are young. Your youth mistakes certainty of the few things that you think you know for knowledge of things that it takes a life time to understand. With time and a few life experiences “IT” becomes the thing you pursue to give your life meaning. Somewhere along the way of having or getting “IT” you ask yourself, ‘Is this “IT”? Panic sets in when you realize that “IT” is your life. Fear and insecurity is that feeling you get when “IT” has not been worth a life time.


Harvey, David. Justice, Nature, and the Geography of Difference. New York: Longman, 1996.

Fanon, Frantz. Black Skin White Masks. Trans. Charles Lam Markmann. New York: Grove Press. 1967.

Cancian, Francesca M. Gender Politics: Love and Power in the Private and Public Spheres. Gender and the Life Course. Ed. Alice S. Rossi. New York: Aldine, 1985.

Sand, Shlomo. The Invention of the Jewish People. New York: Verso, 2009.

Lay, Shawn. The Invisible Empire In The West: Toward a New Historical Appraisal of the Ku Klux Klan of the 1920's. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2004.


Carothers, Thomas. Think Again: Civil Society. Foreign Policy Date, (Winter: 1999-2000).

Ober, Josiah. The original meaning of "democracy": Capacity to do things, not majority rule. Princeton/Stanford Working Papers in Classics. American Political Science Association meetings, Philadelphia, (2006).